Outline of chess

Playing chess requires two-players, a chess board and chess men. In a chess game, each player has sixteen pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. The purpose of the game is to checkmate the opponent’s king, that means when the opponents king is under immediate attack and there is no way to defend it from attack. Chess is usually played for enjoyment, as a hobby and sometimes as an educational tool. Chess games distinction is not clear yet as many games are also considered as work (such as for professional players) or art (such as jigsaw puzzles or games involving an artistic layout such as Mahjong, solitaire, or some video games).


  • Board game– game in which counters or pieces are placed, removed, or moved on a board according to a set of rules. Games may be based on pure strategy, there are chances of mixture of the two and usually have a goal which a player aims to achieve.
  • Strategy game– game (e.g. computer, video or board game) in which the players often use decision-making skills.
  • Two-player game– game played by just two players against each other.


Vital equipments required:

  1. Chess board (checkerboard with of 64 squares (eight rows and eight columns) in two alternating colors (white and black).
  2. Rank– horizontal row of squares on the chessboard.
  3. File– vertical column of squares on the chessboard
  4. Chess pieces– two armies of 16 chess pieces, one army white, the other black. Each player controls one of the armies for the entire game. The pieces in each army include:
    • 1 king – most important piece, and one of the weakest (until the endgame).
    • 1 queen – most powerful piece in the game, with a relative value of 9 points. The top of the piece is crown-like.
    • 2 rooks – look like castle towers and have a relative value of 5 points each.
    • 2 bishops – stylized after mitres (bishops’ hats), and have a relative value of 3 points each.
    • 2 knights – usually look like horse heads and have a relative value of 3 points each.
    • 8pawns – smallest pieces in the game, each topped by a ball. Pawns have a relative value of 1 point each.

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How each piece moves

Moving a pawn– pawns move straight forward one space at a time, but capture diagonally. On its first move, a pawn may move two squares forward instead. Also, pawns are subject to the en passant.

  • En passant– on the very next move after a player moves a pawn two squares forward from its starting position, an opposing pawn that is guarding the skipped square may capture the pawn (taking it “as it passes”), by moving to the passed square as if the pawn had stopped there.
  • Pawn promotion– when a pawn reaches its eighth rank it is exchanged for the player’s choice of a queen, rook, bishop or knight (usually a queen, since it is the most powerful piece).
  • Moving a knight– knights move two squares horizontally and one square vertically, or two squares vertically and one square horizontally, jumping directly to the destination while ignoring intervening spaces.
  • Moving a bishop– bishops move any distance in a straight line in either direction along squares connected diagonally. One bishop in each army moves diagonally on white squares only, and the other bishop is restricted to moving along black squares.
  • Moving a rook– rook may move any distance along a rank or a file (forward, backward, left, or right), and can also be used for castling (see below).
    • Castling– special move available to each player once in the game (with restrictions) where the king is moved two squares to the left or right and the rook on that side is moved to the other side of the king.
  • Moving the queen– queen may move like a rook or like a bishop (horizontally, vertically, or diagonally), but no castling.
    • Moving the king– king may move one square in any direction, but may not move into check. It may also make a special move called castling.
  • Castling – special move available to each player once in the game (with restrictions) where the king is moved two squares to the left or right and the rook on that side is moved to the other side of the king.


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